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Nightingale graph

Current rating 3.6/5 Impact: 3Accuracy: 49 votes
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Nightingale graph
Spider pie graph of deaths by year 1854-1855.
Level of expertise
Florence Nightingale (1858) Notes on matters afecting the health, efficiency, and hospital administration of the British Army. London: Harrison & Sons. (Area Profile)
Interactive features
Benefits & pitfalls to avoid
  • Pie charts are often criticised. Comparing the size of pie segments can be difficult, and many visualisation experts suggest that bar-charts should be used instead.
  • When using colours to portray data values or types, ensure that the colors used are accessible to all users. Online tools such as ColorBrewer ( can help identify issues with colours used.
  • Where spider (radar) charts are used to represent time series data, the time series needs to show cyclical data. For example data on crime offences by hour of day could be usefully represented on a spider chart, similarly disease levels by month of the year.
Create your own
  • Pie charts can be created in a range of standard data applications such as Excel.
  • Spider (radar) charts can be created in a range of standard data applications such as Excel.