Map and line chart showing Napoleon's retreat from Moscow
Famous visualisation showing Napoleon's advance on Moscow (in brown), and subsequent retreat (in black). The x,y co-ordinates show the armies position over time, with the width of the line representing the size of Napoleon's army. The line-chart at the bottom shows the temperature during the retreat. Note the catastrophic crossing of river Stultienska on November 28th, with the temperature at -20 'Reamur' (-16 Celsius).